المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

اعرض النسخة الكاملة : The Arab World



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02-11-2010, 02:20 PM
The Arab World


Note: Information and statistics included are based on The CIA World Factbook 2010 & Encyclopedia Britannica 2010
______________________________________________________________


The Arabs live majorly in the middle east and North Africa. Their land stretches from the Persian gulf in the east to the Atlantic ocean in the west.
This spacious land contains about 22 countries most of them speak Arabic as the first language .

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02-11-2010, 02:24 PM
ALGERIA

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Background:
Phoenician traders settled the area early in the 1st Millennium BC; several centuries later the Romans invaded, And by AD 40 they had control of the Mediterranean Coast. The fall of Rome in the 5th century led to invasion by the Vandals and later by Byzantium. The Islamic conquest began in the 7th century; by 711 All of northern Africa was under the control of the Umayyad caliphate. Several Islamic Berber empires followed, most prominently the Almoravid (c.
1054–1130), which extended its domain to Spain, and the Almohad (c. 1130 1269). The Barbary Coast pirates, operating in the area, had menaced Mediterranean trade for centuries, and France seized this pretext to enter Algeria in 1830. By 1847 France had established control in the region, and by the late 19th century it had instituted civil rule. Popular movements resulted in the bloody Algerian War (1954–62); independence was achieved following a
referendum in 1962.

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Area:
total: 2,381,741 sq km
Climate:
arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Geography - note:
second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
Population:
34,178,188 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
Ethnic groups:
Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Algiers
Administrative divisions:
48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

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02-11-2010, 02:30 PM
BAHRAIN

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Background:

The area has long been an important trading center and is mentioned in Persian, Greek, and Roman references. It was ruled by Arabs from the 7th century AD but was then occupied by the Portuguese in 1521–1602. Since 1783 it has been ruled by the Khalifah family, though through a series of treaties its defense remained a British responsibility from 1820 to 1971. After Britain withdrew its forces from the Persian Gulf (1968), Bahrain declared its independence
in 1971. It served as a center for the allies in the Persian Gulf War (1990–91).Constitutional revisions, ratified in 2002, made Bahrain a constitutional
monarchy.

Location:
Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Natural resources:
oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
Population:
728,709
country comparison to the world: 162
note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2009 est.)
Ethnic groups:
Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)
Religions:
Muslim (Shia and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)

Languages:
Arabic, English

Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
name: Manama

Administrative divisions:
5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat
note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

National holiday:
National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection

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02-11-2010, 02:35 PM
EGYPT

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Background

Egypt is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous
civilizations. Upper and Lower Egypt were united c.
3000 BC, beginning a period of cultural achievement
and a line of native rulers that lasted nearly 3,000
years. Egypt’s ancient history is divided into the Old,
Middle, and New Kingdoms, spanning 31 dynasties
and lasting to 332 BC. The pyramids date from the Old
Kingdom, the cult of Osiris and the refinement of
sculpture from the Middle Kingdom, and the era of
empire and the Exodus of the Jews from the New
Kingdom. An Assyrian invasion occurred in the 7th
century BC, and the Persian Achaemenids established
a dynasty in 525 BC. The invasion by Alexander the
Great in 332 BC inaugurated the Macedonian Ptolemaic
period and the ascendancy of Alexandria. The
Romans held Egypt from 30 BC to AD 395; later it was
placed under the control of Constantinople. Constantine’s
granting of tolerance in 313 to the Christians
began the development of a formal Egyptian (Coptic)
church. Egypt came under Arab control in 642 and ultimately
was transformed into an Arabic-speaking
state, with Islam as the dominant religion. Held by the
Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, in 969 it became
the center of the Fatimid dynasty. In 1250 the Mamluks
established a dynasty that lasted until 1517,
when Egypt fell to the Ottoman Turks. An economic
decline ensued, and with it a decline in Egyptian culture.
Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914
and received nominal independence in 1922, when a
constitutional monarchy was established. A coup
overthrew the monarchy in 1952, with Gamal Abdel
Nasser taking power. Following three wars with Israel,
Egypt, under Nasser’s successor,

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km

Climate:
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Population:
78,866,635 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Ethnic groups:
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

Religions:
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%

Languages:
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Cairo

Administrative divisions:
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj (Sohag)
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952

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02-11-2010, 02:41 PM
IRAQ

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Background

Called Mesopotamia in Classical times, the region
gave rise to the world’s earliest civilizations, including
those of Sumer, Akkad, and Babylon. invaded by
Alexander the Great in 330 BC, the area later became
a battleground between Romans and Parthians and
then between Sasanians and Byzantines. Arab Muslims
conquered it in the 7th century AD and ruled until
the Mongols took over in 1258. The Ottomans took
control in the 16th century and ruled until 1917. The
British occupied the country during World War I and
created the kingdom of Iraq in 1921. The British occupied
Iraq again during World War II. A king was restored
following the war, but a revolution ended the
monarchy in 1958. Following a series of military
coups. The Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s and the Persian
Gulf War (precipitated by the Iraqi invasion of
Kuwait in 1990) brought heavy casualties and disrupted
the economy. The 1990s were dominated by
economic and political turmoil. In response to
the contention that Iraq was in possession of
weapons of mass destruction (none were ever
found), on 19 Mar 2003 air attacks on Baghdad
began, and soon afterward US and British ground
forces invaded southern Iraq from Kuwait; within a
month most of the country was under the control of
coalition forces. Saddam was taken into custody in
December. In July 2003 US authorities established
an Iraqi Governing Council, and a new interim constitution
was agreed upon in late February 2004. Almost
immediately after the occupation began, however,
various forms of Iraqi opposition arose, and
resistance attacks grew in frequency and violence in
the years that followed.

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

Area:
total: 438,317 sq km

Climate:
mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Population:
28,945,569 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40

Ethnic groups:
Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%

Religions:
Muslim 97%, Christian or other 3%

Languages:
Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Turkoman (a Turkish dialect), Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic), Armenian

Government type:
parliamentary democracy

Capital:
name: Baghdad

Administrative divisions:
18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 region*; Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Kurdistan Regional Government*, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
National holiday:
Republic Day, July 14 (1958); note - the Government of Iraq has yet to declare an official national holiday but still observes Republic Day

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02-11-2010, 02:44 PM
JORDAN

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Background
Jordan shares much of its history with Palestine, since
both occupy the area known historically as Palestine.
Much of present-day eastern Jordan was
under Kings David and Solomon c.
1000 BC. It fell to the Seleucids in 330 BC and to Muslim
Arabs in the 7th century AD. The Crusaders extended
the kingdom of Jerusalem east of the Jordan
River in 1099. Jordan submitted to Ottoman Turkish
rule during the 16th century. In 1920 the area comprising
Jordan (then known as the Transjordan) was
established within the British mandate of Palestine.
Transjordan became an independent state in 1927,
although the British mandate did not end until 1948.
After hostilities with the new state of Israel ceased in
1949, Jordan annexed the West Bank of the Jordan
River, administering the territory until Israel gained
control of it in the Six-Day War of 1967. In 1970–71

Location:
Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia
Area:
total: 89,342 sq km
Climate:
mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Natural resources:
phosphates, potash, shale oil
Population:
6,269,285 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
Ethnic groups:
Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shia Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)
Languages:
Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
name: Amman
Administrative divisions:
12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

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02-11-2010, 02:47 PM
KUWAIT

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Background
Faylakah Island, in Kuwait Bay, had a civilization
dating back to the 3rd millennium BC that flourished until 1200 BC. Greek colonists resettled the island in
the 4th century BC. Abd Rahim of the Sabah dynasty
became sheikh in 1756, the first of a family that
continues to rule Kuwait. In 1899, to thwart German
and Ottoman influences, Kuwait gave Britain control
of its foreign affairs. Following the outbreak of war
in 1914, Britain established a protectorate there. In
1961, after Kuwait became independent, Iraq laid
claim to it. British troops defended Kuwait, the Arab
League recognized its independence, and Iraq
dropped its claim. Iraqi forces invaded and occupied
Kuwait in 1990, and a US-led military coalition
drove them out in 1991. The destruction of many of
Kuwait’s oil wells complicated reconstruction efforts.


Location:
Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
Area:
total: 17,818 sq km
Climate:
dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Population:
2,692,526
Ethnic groups:
Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
Religions:
Muslim 85% ,other (includes Christian, Hindu, Parsi) 15%
Languages:
Arabic (official), English widely spoken
Government type:
constitutional emirate

Capital:
name: Kuwait City
Administrative divisions:
6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al 'Asimah, Al Farwaniyah, Al Jahra', Hawalli, Mubarak al Kabir
National holiday:
National Day, 25 February (1950)

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02-11-2010, 02:52 PM
LEBANON

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Location:
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Palestine and Syria
Area:
total: 10,400 sq km

Climate:
Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
Natural resources:
limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Population:
4,017,095 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
Ethnic groups:
Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Religions:
Muslim 59.7% (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Beirut

Administrative divisions:
6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beqaa, Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
National holiday:
Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

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02-11-2010, 02:54 PM
LIBYA

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Background
Greeks and Phoenicians settled the area in the 7th
century BC. It was conquered by Rome in the 1st century
BC and by Arabs in the 7th century AD. In the 16th
century the Ottoman Turks combined Libya’s three regions
under one regency in Tripoli. In 1911 Italy
claimed control of Libya, and by the outbreak of World
War II, 150,000 Italians lived there. It became an independent
state in 1951. The discovery of oil in
1959 brought wealth to Libya. A decade later a group
of army officers led by Muammar al-Qaddafi deposed
the king and made the country an Islamic republic.
Under Qaddafi’s rule

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Area:
total: 1,759,540 sq km
Climate:
Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Population:
6,324,357
country comparison to the world: 103
Ethnic groups:
Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%
Languages:
Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Government type:
Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils

Capital:
name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)

Administrative divisions:
25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

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02-11-2010, 02:57 PM
MAURITANIA

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Background
Inhabited in ancient times by Sanhadja Berbers, in
the 11th and 12th centuries Mauritania was the center
of the Berber Almoravid movement, which imposed
Islam. Arab tribes arrived in the 15th century
and formed powerful confederations; the Portuguese
also arrived then. France gained control of the coast
in 1817 and in 1903 made the territory a protectorate.
In 1904 it was added to French West Africa,
and later it became a colony. In 1960 Mauritania
achieved independence. Its first president was
ousted in a 1978 military coup. After a series of military
rulers, in 1991 a new constitution was adopted,
and multiparty elections were held in 1992. The
country faced continued economic hardship and political
unrest, including coups, in the late 20th and
early 21st centuries.

Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara
Area:
total: 1,030,700 sq km
Climate:
desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
Population:
3,129,486 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135

Ethnic groups:
mixed Moor/black 40%, Moor 30%, black 30%
Religions:
Muslim 100%

Languages:
Arabic (official and national), Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French, Hassaniya
Government type:
Republic

Capital:
name: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions:
12 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district*; Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Nouakchott*, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
National holiday:
Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:00 PM
MOROCCO

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Background
The Berbers entered Morocco near the end of the
2nd millennium BC. Phoenicians established trading
posts along the Mediterranean during the 12th century
BC, and Carthage had settlements along the Atlantic
in the 5th century BC. After the fall of Carthage,
Morocco became a loyal ally of Rome, and in AD 42 it
was annexed by Rome as part of the province of Mauretania.
It was conquered by Muslims in the 7th century.
Beginning in the mid-11th century, the Almoravids,
Almohads, and Marinids ruled successively. After the
fall of the Marinids in the mid-15th century, the
SaAdis ruled for a century beginning in 1550. The
French fought Morocco over the Algerian boundary in
the 1840s, and the Spanish seized part of Moroccan
territory in 1859. It was a French protectorate from
1912 until its independence in 1956. In the mid-
1970s it reasserted claim to the Western Sahara,
and in 1976 Spanish troops withdrew from the region,
leaving behind the Algerian-supported Saharan
guerrillas of the Polisario movement. Relations with
Mauritania and Algeria deteriorated, and fighting
over the region continued. Attempts at mediation
have repeatedly been made by the international community.
Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
Area:
total: 446,550 sq km
Climate:
Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Natural resources:
phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
Population:
31,285,174 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
Ethnic groups:
Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
Languages:
Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
Government type:
constitutional monarchy

Capital:
name: Rabat
Administrative divisions:
15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate
National holiday:
Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:03 PM
OMAN

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Background
Oman has been inhabited for at least 10,000 years.
Arabs began migrating there in the 9th century BC.
Tribal warfare was endemic until the conversion to
Islam in the 7th century AD. It was ruled by Ibadi
imams until 1154, when a royal dynasty was established.
The Portuguese controlled the coastal areas
from about 1507 to 1650, when they were expelled.
The Al Bu SaAid dynasty, founded in the mid-18th century,
still rules Oman. Oil was discovered in 1964. In
1970 the sultan was deposed by his son, who began
a policy of modernization, and under him the country
joined the Arab League and the UN. In the Persian
Gulf War, Oman cooperated with the allied forces
against Iraq. In the 1990s it continued to expand its
foreign relations.
Location:
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Area:
total: 309,500 sq km
Climate:
dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Natural resources:
petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Population:
3,418,085
country comparison to the world: 133
Ethnic groups:
Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

Religions:
Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu) 25%

Languages:
Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Government type:
monarchy

Capital:
name: Muscat
Administrative divisions:
5 regions (manatiq, singular - mintaqat) and 4 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Buraymi*, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat (Muscat)*, Musandam*, Zufar (Dhofar)*
National holiday:
Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:11 PM
PALESTINE

http://www.moshreq.com/up/uploads/de44fc0534.jpg

http://www.countryseek.com/maps/palestine-map.gif


1.West Bank:
Location:
Middle East, west of Jordan
Climate:
temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Natural resources:
arable land
Population:
2,461,267
Ethnic groups:
Palestinian Arab and other 83%, Jewish settlers 17%

Religions:
Muslim 75% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish settlers 17%, Christian and other 8%
Languages:
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely understood)

2. Gaza Strip

Climate:
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Natural resources:
arable land, natural gas

Population:
1,551,859 (July 2009 est.)
Ethnic groups:
Palestinian Arab

Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99.3%, Christian 0.7%
Ethnic groups:
Palestinian Arab

Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99.3%, Christian 0.7%
Languages:
Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by many Palestinians), English (widely understood)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:13 PM
QATAR

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Background
Qatar was partly controlled by Bahrain in the 18th
and 19th centuries and was part of the Ottoman Empire
until World War I. In 1916 it became a British protectorate.
Oil was discovered in 1939, and the country
rapidly modernized. Qatar declared independence
in 1971, when the British protectorate ended.

Location:
Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Area:
total: 11,586 sq km
Climate:
arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Population:
833,285 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
Ethnic groups:
Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Religions:
Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)
Languages:
Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Government type:
emirate

Capital:
name: Doha
Administrative divisions:
10 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Sa'id, Umm Salal
National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 September (1971); also observed is National Day, 18 December (anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:16 PM
SAUDI ARABIA

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Background
Saudi Arabia is the historical home of Islam, founded
by Muhammad in Medina in 622. During medieval
times, local and foreign rulers fought for control of the
Arabian Peninsula; in 1517 the Ottomans prevailed.
In the 18th–19th centuries Islamic leaders supporting
religious reform struggled to regain Saudi territory,
all of which was restored by 1904. The British
held Saudi lands as a protectorate from 1915 to
1927; then they acknowledged the sovereignty of the
Kingdom of the Hejaz and Najd. The two kingdoms
were unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.
Since World War II, it has supported the Palestinian
cause in the Middle East and maintained close ties
with the US.
Location:
Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen
Area:
total: 2,149,690 sq km
Climate:
harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Population:
28,686,633
country comparison to the world: 41
note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals (July 2009 est.)
Ethnic groups:
Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Religions:
Muslim 100%

Languages:
Arabic
Government type:
monarchy

Capital:
name: Riyadh
Administrative divisions:
13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah (Northern Border), Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad (Riyadh), Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
National holiday:
Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:21 PM
SUDAN

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Background
From the end of the 4th millennium BC, Nubia (now
the northern Sudan) periodically came under Egyptian
rule, and it was part of the kingdom of Cush
from the 11th century BC to the 4th century AD. Christian
missionaries converted the Sudan’s three principal
kingdoms during the 6th century AD; these
black Christian kingdoms coexisted with their Muslim
Arab neighbors in Egypt for centuries, until the
influx of Arab immigrants brought about their collapse
in the 13th–15th centuries. Egypt had conquered
all of the Sudan by 1874 and encouraged
British interference in the region; this aroused Muslim
opposition and led to the revolt of al-Mahdi, who
captured Khartoum in 1885 and established a Muslim
theocracy in the Sudan that lasted until 1898,
when Mahdist forces were defeated by the British.
The British ruled the country, generally in partnership
with Egypt, until The Sudan achieved independence
in 1956. Since then the country has fluctuated
between ineffective parliamentary government
and unstable military rule. The non-Muslim population
of the south began rebellion against the Muslim-
controlled government of the north in the early
1980s, leading to famines and the displacement of
millions of people. Meanwhile, fighting broke out in
2003 between non-Arab Muslims in the Darfur region
of western Sudan and government-backed Arab
militias known as Janjaweed; tens of thousands of
people were killed and hundreds of thousands more
were displaced.
Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Area:
total: 2,505,813 sq km
Climate:
tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Natural resources:
petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Population:
41,087,825 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
Ethnic groups:
black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Religions:
Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs 25%

Languages:
Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages
Capital:
name: Khartoum
Administrative divisions:
25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahda (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Central Equatoria), Gharb al Istiwa'iyya (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr el Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqoley (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Shimal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr el Ghazal), Shimal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyya (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 January (1956

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:24 PM
SYRIA
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Background
Syria has been inhabited for several thousand years.
From the 3rd millennium BC it was under the control
variously of Sumerians, Akkadians, Amorites, Egyptians,
Hittites, Assyrians, and Babylonians. In the 6th
century BC it became part of the Persian Achaemenian
dynasty, which fell to Alexander the Great in 330
BC. Seleucid rulers governed it from 301 BC to c. 164
BC; Parthians and Nabataean Arabs then divided the
region. It flourished as a Roman province (64 BC–AD
300) and as part of the Byzantine Empire
(300–634) until Muslims invaded and established
control. It came under the Ottoman Empire in 1516,
which held it, except for brief rules by Egypt, until
the British invaded in World War I. After the war it
became a French mandate; it achieved independence
in 1945. It united with Egypt in the United
Arab Republic (1958–61). During the Six-Day War
(1967), it lost the Golan Heights to Israel. Syrian
troops frequently clashed with Israeli troops in
Lebanon during the 1980s and ’90s

Location:
Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey
Area:
total: 185,180 sq km
Climate:
Hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus and the interior

Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower
Population:
21,762,978
country comparison to the world: 52

Ethnic groups:
Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 74%, other Muslim (includes Alawite, Druze) 16%, Christian (various denominations) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

Languages:
Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
Government type:
Republic
Capital:
name: Damascus
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah (Latakia), Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq (Damascus),, Halab(Aleppo), Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq Tartus
National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 April (1946)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:30 PM
TUNISIA

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Background
From the 12th century BC the Phoenicians had a series
of trading posts on the northern African coast. By
the 6th century BC the Carthaginian kingdom encompassed
most of present-day Tunisia. The Romans
ruled from 146 BC until the Muslim Arab conquest in
the mid-7th century AD. The area was fought over,
won, and lost by many, including the Abbasids, the Almohads,
the Spanish, and the Ottoman Turks, who finally
conquered it in 1574 and held it until the late
19th century. For a time it maintained autonomy as
the French, the British, and the Italians contended for
the region. In 1881 Tunisia became a French protectorate.
In World War II, US and British forces captured
it (1943) to end a brief German occupation. In 1956
France granted it full independence; Habib Bourguiba
assumed power and remained in office until
1987.
Location:
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
Area:
total: 163,610 sq km

Climate:
temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Natural resources:
petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Population:
10,486,339 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Ethnic groups:
Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Religions (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html?countryName=Tunisia&countryCode=ts&regionCode=af#2122):


(https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html?countryName=Tunisia&countryCode=ts&regionCode=af&#ts)

Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%
Languages (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/notesanddefs.html?countryName=Tunisia&countryCode=ts&regionCode=af#2098):


(https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2098.html?countryName=Tunisia&countryCode=ts&regionCode=af&#ts)

Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
02-11-2010, 03:31 PM
to be continued

أبومحمدع
02-11-2010, 03:44 PM
Peace be upon you .السلام عليكم .
Great job .
May ALLAH reward you my brother .
أثابك الله أخي .
قد نستخدم هذه البداية في غرفة هتاف كي نتعلم القراءة .:) ونفيد فائدتين تعلم القراءة وجمع معلومات حول الدول العربية .
فزرنا في هتاف كي تصحح لنا قراءاتنا :).
من يدري لعل الأمر يتسع و يصبح هناك ليلة خاصة بغير الناطقين باللغة العربية أيضا كما في برامج المحادثة الأخرى .

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:15 PM
أتشرف بالتواجد في هتاف معكم أيها الأساتذة

صدقا لطالما تمنيت أن تسمح لي الظروف بالتواجد ولكن هناك أسباب وظروف تحرمني الحضور
علَّ الأيام تجود بفرصة أستطيع من خلالها التواجد والتفاعل معكم .

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:20 PM
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

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Background
The Persian Gulf was the location of important trading
centers as early as Sumerian times. Its people
converted to Islam in Muhammad’s lifetime. The
Portuguese entered the region in the early 16th

century, and the British East India Company arrived
about 100 years later. In 1820 the British exacted
a peace treaty with local rulers along the coast of
the eastern Arabian Peninsula. The area formerly
called the Pirate Coast became known as the Trucial
Coast. In 1892 the rulers agreed to restrict foreign
relations to Britain. Though the British administered
the region from 1853, they never assumed
sovereignty; each state maintained full internal control.
The states formed the Trucial States Council in
1960. In 1971 the sheikhs terminated defense
treaties with Britain and established the six-member
federation. Ras al-Khaymah joined it in 1972.


Location:
Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Area:
total: 83,600 sq km
Climate:
desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas
Population:
4.798.491
country comparison to the world: 115
Ethnic groups:
Emirati 19%, other Arab and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8% (1982)
note: less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)
Religions:
Muslim 96% (Shia 16%), other (includes Christian, Hindu) 4%


Languages:
Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
Government type:
federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE federal government and other powers reserved to member emirates




Capital:
name: Abu Dhabi
National holiday:
Independence Day, 2 December (1971)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:22 PM
YEMEN

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Background
Yemen was the home of ancient Minaean,
Sabaean, and Himyarite kingdoms. The Romans invaded
the region in the 1st century AD. In the 6th
century it was invaded by Ethiopians and Persians.
Following conversion to Islam in the 7th century,
it was ruled nominally under a caliphate. The
Egyptian Ayyubid dynasty ruled there from 1173 to
1229, after which the region passed to the Rasulids.
From 1517 through 1918, the Ottoman Empire
maintained varying degrees of control, especially
in the northwestern section. A boundary
agreement was reached in 1934 between the
northwestern imam-controlled territory, which subsequently
became the Yemen Arab Republic (North
Yemen), and the southeastern British-controlled territory,
which subsequently became the People’s Democratic
Republic of Yemen (South Yemen). Relations
between the two Yemens remained tense and
were marked by conflict throughout the 1970s and
1980s. Reaching an accord, the two officially united
as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. Its 1993 elections
were the first free, multiparty general elections
held in the Arabian Peninsula, and they were
the first in which women participated. In 1994,
after a two-month civil war, a new constitution was
approved.


Location:
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia


Area:
total: 527,968 sq km
Climate:
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west


Population:
22,858,238 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Ethnic groups:
predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
Religions:
Muslim including Shaf'i (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shia), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu


Languages:
Arabic
Government type:
republic


Capital:
name: Sanaa
Administrative divisions:
21 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, 'Adan (Aden), Ad Dali', Al Bayda', Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al 'Asimah, 'Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma'rib, Raymah, Sa'dah, San'a' (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta'izz
National holiday:
Unification Day, 22 May (1990)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:24 PM
All above mentioning countries in addition to Djibouti, Somalia and Comoros form League of Arab States (LAS; also called Arab League)
Founded: 1945

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:26 PM
COMOROS

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Background
The Comoro Islands were known to European navigators
from the 16th century. In 1843 France officially
took possession of Mayotte and in 1886 placed the
other three islands under protection. Subordinated to
Madagascar in 1912, Comoros became an overseas
territory of France in 1947. In 1961 it was granted
autonomy. In 1974 majorities on three of the islands
voted for independence, which was granted in 1975.
The following decade saw several coup attempts,
which culminated in the assassination of the president
in 1989. French intervention permitted multiparty
elections in 1990, but the country remained in
a state of chronic instability. Anjouan and Mohéli seceded
from the Comoros federation in 1997. The
army took control of the government in 1999. A referendum
at the end of 2001 renamed the country
the Union of the Comoros and granted the three main
islands partially autonomous status.
Location:
Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Area:
total: 2,235 sq km
Climate:
tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Natural resources:
NEGL
Population:
752,438 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Ethnic groups:
Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava


Religions:
Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%
Languages:
Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
Government type:
republic
Capital:
name: Moroni
Administrative divisions:
3 islands and 4 municipalities*; Grande Comore (N'gazidja), Anjouan (Ndzuwani), Domoni*, Fomboni*, Moheli (Mwali), Moroni*, Moutsamoudou*
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1975

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:28 PM
DJIBOUTI

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Background
Settled around the 3rd century BC by the Arab ancestors
of the Afars, Djibouti was later populated by Somali
Issas. In AD 825 Islam was brought to the area by
missionaries. Arabs controlled the trade in this region
until the 16th century; it became the French protectorate
of French Somaliland in 1888. In 1946 it became
a French overseas territory, and in 1977 it
gained its independence. In the late 20th century, the
country received refugees from the Ethiopian-Somali
war and from civil conflicts in Eritrea. In the 1990s it
suffered from political unrest.
Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Area:
total: 23,200 sq km
Climate:
desert; torrid, dry


Natural resources:
geothermal areas, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Population:
724,622 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
Ethnic groups:
Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
Religions:
Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Languages:
French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Government type:
republic


Capital:
name: Djibouti
Administrative divisions:
6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
03-11-2010, 01:30 PM
SOMALIA

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Background
Muslim Arabs and Persians first established trading
posts along the coasts of Somalia in the 7th–10th
centuries. By the 10th century Somali nomads occupied
the area inland from the Gulf of Aden, and
the south and west were inhabited by various groups
of pastoral Oromo peoples. Intensive European exploration
began after the British occupation of Aden
in 1839, and in the late 19th century Britain and
Italy set up protectorates in the region. During World
War II the Italians invaded British Somaliland
(1940); a year later British troops retook the area,
and Britain administered the region until 1950,
when Italian Somaliland became a UN trust territory.
In 1960 it was united with the former British Somaliland,
and the two became the independent Republic
of Somalia. Since then it has suffered political
and civil strife, including military dictatorship, civil
war, drought, and famine. No effective central government
has existed since the early 1990s. In 1991
a proclamation of a Republic of Somaliland, on territory
corresponding to the former British Somaliland,
was issued by a breakaway group, but it did not receive
international recognition. A multinational force
intervened from 1992 to 1994 in an unsuccessful
attempt to stabilize the region. The country remained
in turmoil.
Location:
Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Area:
total: 637,657 sq km
Climate:
principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Natural resources:
uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Population:
9,832,017
country comparison to the world: 83
Ethnic groups:
Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including Arabs 30,000)


Religions:
Sunni Muslim


Languages:
Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English
Capital:
name: Mogadishu
Administrative divisions:
18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
National holiday:
Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland

الضرغام
09-11-2010, 05:07 AM
السلام عليكم !
شكرا لكم يا أستاذ ! هذه المعلومات مفيدة جدا لي لأن لغتي هي اللغة الإنجليزية

Peace be with you!
Thank you professor! This information is very useful to me because my language is English.

أبومحمدع
09-11-2010, 07:06 PM
مَرْحَبًا أُسْتَاذُ (ضِرْغَام) فِي مُنْتَدَاكَ (الْفَصِيح) سَنَتَبَادَلُ الْمَعَارِفَ هُنَا إِنْ شَاءَ الله .


Welcome Professor in your forum
.(ALFASEEH)
We will exchange knowledges here God willing .

بَحْرُ الرَّمَل
10-11-2010, 01:41 PM
السلام عليكم !
شكرا لكم يا أستاذ ! هذه المعلومات مفيدة جدا لي لأن لغتي هي اللغة الإنجليزية
Peace be with you!
Thank you professor! This information is very useful to me because my language is English.



You're welcome professor
I wish you all happiness and benefit between us
by the way your Arabic seems very good

خيرية
26-11-2010, 07:36 AM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

ما شاء الله .... معلومات رائعة جدا يا أستاذ ! جزاكم الله خيرا وأحسن الله اليكم , آمين يارب .

Very interesting information and benefits for us , thank you .
May Allah rewards you for your effort....Ameen Ya Rabb

د. مصطفى صلاح
26-11-2010, 10:16 AM
الأخت خيرية، متخصصة في تعليم العربية للأجانب، أليس كذلك ؟ :)

أحمد39
26-11-2010, 09:52 PM
بوركت أستاذ بحر الرمل علي هذه النقولات الرائعة