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الموضوع: The Arab World

  1. #1
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
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    The Arab World

    The Arab World

    Note: Information and statistics included are based on The CIA World Factbook 2010 & Encyclopedia Britannica 2010
    ______________________________________________________________

    The Arabs live majorly in the middle east and North Africa. Their land stretches from the Persian gulf in the east to the Atlantic ocean in the west.
    This spacious land contains about 22 countries most of them speak Arabic as the first language .



  2. #2
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    ALGERIA




    Background:
    Phoenician traders settled the area early in the 1st Millennium BC; several centuries later the Romans invaded, And by AD 40 they had control of the Mediterranean Coast. The fall of Rome in the 5th century led to invasion by the Vandals and later by Byzantium. The Islamic conquest began in the 7th century; by 711 All of northern Africa was under the control of the Umayyad caliphate. Several Islamic Berber empires followed, most prominently the Almoravid (c.
    1054–1130), which extended its domain to Spain, and the Almohad (c. 1130 1269). The Barbary Coast pirates, operating in the area, had menaced Mediterranean trade for centuries, and France seized this pretext to enter Algeria in 1830. By 1847 France had established control in the region, and by the late 19th century it had instituted civil rule. Popular movements resulted in the bloody Algerian War (1954–62); independence was achieved following a
    referendum in 1962.

    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
    Area:
    total: 2,381,741 sq km
    Climate:
    arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

    Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
    Geography - note:
    second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
    Population:
    34,178,188 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
    Religions:
    Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
    Government type:
    republic

    Capital:
    name: Algiers
    Administrative divisions:
    48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
    National holiday:
    Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)


  3. #3
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Bahrain

    BAHRAIN




    Background:

    The area has long been an important trading center and is mentioned in Persian, Greek, and Roman references. It was ruled by Arabs from the 7th century AD but was then occupied by the Portuguese in 1521–1602. Since 1783 it has been ruled by the Khalifah family, though through a series of treaties its defense remained a British responsibility from 1820 to 1971. After Britain withdrew its forces from the Persian Gulf (1968), Bahrain declared its independence
    in 1971. It served as a center for the allies in the Persian Gulf War (1990–91).Constitutional revisions, ratified in 2002, made Bahrain a constitutional
    monarchy.

    Location:
    Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

    Climate:
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

    Natural resources:
    oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
    Population:
    728,709
    country comparison to the world: 162
    note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2009 est.)
    Ethnic groups:
    Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)
    Religions:
    Muslim (Shia and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)

    Languages:
    Arabic, English

    Government type:
    constitutional monarchy

    Capital:
    name: Manama

    Administrative divisions:
    5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat
    note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

    National holiday:
    National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection


  4. #4
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Egypt

    EGYPT




    Background

    Egypt is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous
    civilizations. Upper and Lower Egypt were united c.
    3000 BC, beginning a period of cultural achievement
    and a line of native rulers that lasted nearly 3,000
    years. Egypt’s ancient history is divided into the Old,
    Middle, and New Kingdoms, spanning 31 dynasties
    and lasting to 332 BC. The pyramids date from the Old
    Kingdom, the cult of Osiris and the refinement of
    sculpture from the Middle Kingdom, and the era of
    empire and the Exodus of the Jews from the New
    Kingdom. An Assyrian invasion occurred in the 7th
    century BC, and the Persian Achaemenids established
    a dynasty in 525 BC. The invasion by Alexander the
    Great in 332 BC inaugurated the Macedonian Ptolemaic
    period and the ascendancy of Alexandria. The
    Romans held Egypt from 30 BC to AD 395; later it was
    placed under the control of Constantinople. Constantine’s
    granting of tolerance in 313 to the Christians
    began the development of a formal Egyptian (Coptic)
    church. Egypt came under Arab control in 642 and ultimately
    was transformed into an Arabic-speaking
    state, with Islam as the dominant religion. Held by the
    Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties, in 969 it became
    the center of the Fatimid dynasty. In 1250 the Mamluks
    established a dynasty that lasted until 1517,
    when Egypt fell to the Ottoman Turks. An economic
    decline ensued, and with it a decline in Egyptian culture.
    Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914
    and received nominal independence in 1922, when a
    constitutional monarchy was established. A coup
    overthrew the monarchy in 1952, with Gamal Abdel
    Nasser taking power. Following three wars with Israel,
    Egypt, under Nasser’s successor,

    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
    Area:
    total: 1,001,450 sq km

    Climate:
    desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

    Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
    Population:
    78,866,635 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16

    Ethnic groups:
    Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

    Religions:
    Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%

    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

    Government type:
    republic

    Capital:
    name: Cairo

    Administrative divisions:
    26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj (Sohag)
    National holiday:
    Revolution Day, 23 July (1952


  5. #5
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Iraq

    IRAQ





    Background

    Called Mesopotamia in Classical times, the region
    gave rise to the world’s earliest civilizations, including
    those of Sumer, Akkad, and Babylon. invaded by
    Alexander the Great in 330 BC, the area later became
    a battleground between Romans and Parthians and
    then between Sasanians and Byzantines. Arab Muslims
    conquered it in the 7th century AD and ruled until
    the Mongols took over in 1258. The Ottomans took
    control in the 16th century and ruled until 1917. The
    British occupied the country during World War I and
    created the kingdom of Iraq in 1921. The British occupied
    Iraq again during World War II. A king was restored
    following the war, but a revolution ended the
    monarchy in 1958. Following a series of military
    coups. The Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s and the Persian
    Gulf War (precipitated by the Iraqi invasion of
    Kuwait in 1990) brought heavy casualties and disrupted
    the economy. The 1990s were dominated by
    economic and political turmoil. In response to
    the contention that Iraq was in possession of
    weapons of mass destruction (none were ever
    found), on 19 Mar 2003 air attacks on Baghdad
    began, and soon afterward US and British ground
    forces invaded southern Iraq from Kuwait; within a
    month most of the country was under the control of
    coalition forces. Saddam was taken into custody in
    December. In July 2003 US authorities established
    an Iraqi Governing Council, and a new interim constitution
    was agreed upon in late February 2004. Almost
    immediately after the occupation began, however,
    various forms of Iraqi opposition arose, and
    resistance attacks grew in frequency and violence in
    the years that followed.

    Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

    Area:
    total: 438,317 sq km

    Climate:
    mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

    Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

    Population:
    28,945,569 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40

    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%

    Religions:
    Muslim 97%, Christian or other 3%

    Languages:
    Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Turkoman (a Turkish dialect), Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic), Armenian

    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy

    Capital:
    name: Baghdad

    Administrative divisions:
    18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 region*; Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta'mim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Kurdistan Regional Government*, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
    National holiday:
    Republic Day, July 14 (1958); note - the Government of Iraq has yet to declare an official national holiday but still observes Republic Day


  6. #6
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Jordan

    JORDAN




    Background
    Jordan shares much of its history with Palestine, since
    both occupy the area known historically as Palestine.
    Much of present-day eastern Jordan was
    under Kings David and Solomon c.
    1000 BC. It fell to the Seleucids in 330 BC and to Muslim
    Arabs in the 7th century AD. The Crusaders extended
    the kingdom of Jerusalem east of the Jordan
    River in 1099. Jordan submitted to Ottoman Turkish
    rule during the 16th century. In 1920 the area comprising
    Jordan (then known as the Transjordan) was
    established within the British mandate of Palestine.
    Transjordan became an independent state in 1927,
    although the British mandate did not end until 1948.
    After hostilities with the new state of Israel ceased in
    1949, Jordan annexed the West Bank of the Jordan
    River, administering the territory until Israel gained
    control of it in the Six-Day War of 1967. In 1970–71

    Location:
    Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia
    Area:
    total: 89,342 sq km
    Climate:
    mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
    Natural resources:
    phosphates, potash, shale oil
    Population:
    6,269,285 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%
    Religions:
    Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), other 2% (several small Shia Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
    Government type:
    constitutional monarchy

    Capital:
    name: Amman
    Administrative divisions:
    12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, 'Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 25 May (1946)


  7. #7
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Kuwait

    KUWAIT





    Background
    Faylakah Island, in Kuwait Bay, had a civilization
    dating back to the 3rd millennium BC that flourished until 1200 BC. Greek colonists resettled the island in
    the 4th century BC. Abd Rahim of the Sabah dynasty
    became sheikh in 1756, the first of a family that
    continues to rule Kuwait. In 1899, to thwart German
    and Ottoman influences, Kuwait gave Britain control
    of its foreign affairs. Following the outbreak of war
    in 1914, Britain established a protectorate there. In
    1961, after Kuwait became independent, Iraq laid
    claim to it. British troops defended Kuwait, the Arab
    League recognized its independence, and Iraq
    dropped its claim. Iraqi forces invaded and occupied
    Kuwait in 1990, and a US-led military coalition
    drove them out in 1991. The destruction of many of
    Kuwait’s oil wells complicated reconstruction efforts.


    Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
    Area:
    total: 17,818 sq km
    Climate:
    dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

    Population:
    2,692,526
    Ethnic groups:
    Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
    Religions:
    Muslim 85% ,other (includes Christian, Hindu, Parsi) 15%
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English widely spoken
    Government type:
    constitutional emirate

    Capital:
    name: Kuwait City
    Administrative divisions:
    6 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al 'Asimah, Al Farwaniyah, Al Jahra', Hawalli, Mubarak al Kabir
    National holiday:
    National Day, 25 February (1950)


  8. #8
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Lebanon

    LEBANON




    Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Palestine and Syria
    Area:
    total: 10,400 sq km

    Climate:
    Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows
    Natural resources:
    limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
    Population:
    4,017,095 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

    Religions:
    Muslim 59.7% (Shia, Sunni, Druze, Isma'ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
    Government type:
    republic

    Capital:
    name: Beirut

    Administrative divisions:
    6 governorates (mohafazat, singular - mohafazah); Beqaa, Beyrouth (Beirut), Liban-Nord, Liban-Sud, Mont-Liban, Nabatiye
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 22 November (1943)


  9. #9
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Libya

    LIBYA




    Background
    Greeks and Phoenicians settled the area in the 7th
    century BC. It was conquered by Rome in the 1st century
    BC and by Arabs in the 7th century AD. In the 16th
    century the Ottoman Turks combined Libya’s three regions
    under one regency in Tripoli. In 1911 Italy
    claimed control of Libya, and by the outbreak of World
    War II, 150,000 Italians lived there. It became an independent
    state in 1951. The discovery of oil in
    1959 brought wealth to Libya. A decade later a group
    of army officers led by Muammar al-Qaddafi deposed
    the king and made the country an Islamic republic.
    Under Qaddafi’s rule

    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
    Area:
    total: 1,759,540 sq km
    Climate:
    Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
    Population:
    6,324,357
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Ethnic groups:
    Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
    Religions:
    Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%
    Languages:
    Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
    Government type:
    Jamahiriya (a state of the masses) in theory, governed by the populace through local councils

    Capital:
    name: Tripoli (Tarabulus)

    Administrative divisions:
    25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
    National holiday:
    Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)


  10. #10
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Mauritania

    MAURITANIA




    Background
    Inhabited in ancient times by Sanhadja Berbers, in
    the 11th and 12th centuries Mauritania was the center
    of the Berber Almoravid movement, which imposed
    Islam. Arab tribes arrived in the 15th century
    and formed powerful confederations; the Portuguese
    also arrived then. France gained control of the coast
    in 1817 and in 1903 made the territory a protectorate.
    In 1904 it was added to French West Africa,
    and later it became a colony. In 1960 Mauritania
    achieved independence. Its first president was
    ousted in a 1978 military coup. After a series of military
    rulers, in 1991 a new constitution was adopted,
    and multiparty elections were held in 1992. The
    country faced continued economic hardship and political
    unrest, including coups, in the late 20th and
    early 21st centuries.

    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara
    Area:
    total: 1,030,700 sq km
    Climate:
    desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty
    Population:
    3,129,486 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135

    Ethnic groups:
    mixed Moor/black 40%, Moor 30%, black 30%
    Religions:
    Muslim 100%

    Languages:
    Arabic (official and national), Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof (all national languages), French, Hassaniya
    Government type:
    Republic

    Capital:
    name: Nouakchott

    Administrative divisions:
    12 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district*; Adrar, Assaba, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, Gorgol, Guidimaka, Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Nouakchott*, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 28 November (1960)


  11. #11
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Morocco

    MOROCCO




    Background
    The Berbers entered Morocco near the end of the
    2nd millennium BC. Phoenicians established trading
    posts along the Mediterranean during the 12th century
    BC, and Carthage had settlements along the Atlantic
    in the 5th century BC. After the fall of Carthage,
    Morocco became a loyal ally of Rome, and in AD 42 it
    was annexed by Rome as part of the province of Mauretania.
    It was conquered by Muslims in the 7th century.
    Beginning in the mid-11th century, the Almoravids,
    Almohads, and Marinids ruled successively. After the
    fall of the Marinids in the mid-15th century, the
    SaAdis ruled for a century beginning in 1550. The
    French fought Morocco over the Algerian boundary in
    the 1840s, and the Spanish seized part of Moroccan
    territory in 1859. It was a French protectorate from
    1912 until its independence in 1956. In the mid-
    1970s it reasserted claim to the Western Sahara,
    and in 1976 Spanish troops withdrew from the region,
    leaving behind the Algerian-supported Saharan
    guerrillas of the Polisario movement. Relations with
    Mauritania and Algeria deteriorated, and fighting
    over the region continued. Attempts at mediation
    have repeatedly been made by the international community.
    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara
    Area:
    total: 446,550 sq km
    Climate:
    Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
    Natural resources:
    phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt
    Population:
    31,285,174 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab-Berber 99.1%, other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%
    Religions:
    Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
    Government type:
    constitutional monarchy

    Capital:
    name: Rabat
    Administrative divisions:
    15 regions; Grand Casablanca, Chaouia-Ouardigha, Doukkala-Abda, Fes-Boulemane, Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen, Guelmim-Es Smara, Laayoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Meknes-Tafilalet, Oriental, Rabat-Sale-Zemmour-Zaer, Souss-Massa-Draa, Tadla-Azilal, Tanger-Tetouan, Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate
    National holiday:
    Throne Day (accession of King MOHAMMED VI to the throne), 30 July (1999)


  12. #12
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Oman

    OMAN




    Background
    Oman has been inhabited for at least 10,000 years.
    Arabs began migrating there in the 9th century BC.
    Tribal warfare was endemic until the conversion to
    Islam in the 7th century AD. It was ruled by Ibadi
    imams until 1154, when a royal dynasty was established.
    The Portuguese controlled the coastal areas
    from about 1507 to 1650, when they were expelled.
    The Al Bu SaAid dynasty, founded in the mid-18th century,
    still rules Oman. Oil was discovered in 1964. In
    1970 the sultan was deposed by his son, who began
    a policy of modernization, and under him the country
    joined the Arab League and the UN. In the Persian
    Gulf War, Oman cooperated with the allied forces
    against Iraq. In the 1990s it continued to expand its
    foreign relations.
    Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
    Area:
    total: 309,500 sq km
    Climate:
    dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
    Population:
    3,418,085
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African

    Religions:
    Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, Hindu) 25%

    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
    Government type:
    monarchy

    Capital:
    name: Muscat
    Administrative divisions:
    5 regions (manatiq, singular - mintaqat) and 4 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Buraymi*, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat (Muscat)*, Musandam*, Zufar (Dhofar)*
    National holiday:
    Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)


  13. #13
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Palestine

    PALESTINE




    1.West Bank:
    Location:
    Middle East, west of Jordan
    Climate:
    temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

    Natural resources:
    arable land
    Population:
    2,461,267
    Ethnic groups:
    Palestinian Arab and other 83%, Jewish settlers 17%

    Religions:
    Muslim 75% (predominantly Sunni), Jewish settlers 17%, Christian and other 8%
    Languages:
    Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English (widely understood)

    2. Gaza Strip

    Climate:
    temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
    Natural resources:
    arable land, natural gas

    Population:
    1,551,859 (July 2009 est.)
    Ethnic groups:
    Palestinian Arab

    Religions:
    Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99.3%, Christian 0.7%
    Ethnic groups:
    Palestinian Arab

    Religions:
    Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99.3%, Christian 0.7%
    Languages:
    Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by many Palestinians), English (widely understood)


  14. #14
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Qatar

    QATAR




    Background
    Qatar was partly controlled by Bahrain in the 18th
    and 19th centuries and was part of the Ottoman Empire
    until World War I. In 1916 it became a British protectorate.
    Oil was discovered in 1939, and the country
    rapidly modernized. Qatar declared independence
    in 1971, when the British protectorate ended.

    Location:
    Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
    Area:
    total: 11,586 sq km
    Climate:
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
    Population:
    833,285 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

    Religions:
    Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
    Government type:
    emirate

    Capital:
    name: Doha
    Administrative divisions:
    10 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Sa'id, Umm Salal
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 3 September (1971); also observed is National Day, 18 December (anniversary of Al Thani family accession to the throne)


  15. #15
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Saudi Arabia

    SAUDI ARABIA




    Background
    Saudi Arabia is the historical home of Islam, founded
    by Muhammad in Medina in 622. During medieval
    times, local and foreign rulers fought for control of the
    Arabian Peninsula; in 1517 the Ottomans prevailed.
    In the 18th–19th centuries Islamic leaders supporting
    religious reform struggled to regain Saudi territory,
    all of which was restored by 1904. The British
    held Saudi lands as a protectorate from 1915 to
    1927; then they acknowledged the sovereignty of the
    Kingdom of the Hejaz and Najd. The two kingdoms
    were unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.
    Since World War II, it has supported the Palestinian
    cause in the Middle East and maintained close ties
    with the US.
    Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen
    Area:
    total: 2,149,690 sq km
    Climate:
    harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
    Population:
    28,686,633
    country comparison to the world: 41
    note: includes 5,576,076 non-nationals (July 2009 est.)
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
    Religions:
    Muslim 100%

    Languages:
    Arabic
    Government type:
    monarchy

    Capital:
    name: Riyadh
    Administrative divisions:
    13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah (Northern Border), Al Jawf, Al Madinah, Al Qasim, Ar Riyad (Riyadh), Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk
    National holiday:
    Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)


  16. #16
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Sudan

    SUDAN




    Background
    From the end of the 4th millennium BC, Nubia (now
    the northern Sudan) periodically came under Egyptian
    rule, and it was part of the kingdom of Cush
    from the 11th century BC to the 4th century AD. Christian
    missionaries converted the Sudan’s three principal
    kingdoms during the 6th century AD; these
    black Christian kingdoms coexisted with their Muslim
    Arab neighbors in Egypt for centuries, until the
    influx of Arab immigrants brought about their collapse
    in the 13th–15th centuries. Egypt had conquered
    all of the Sudan by 1874 and encouraged
    British interference in the region; this aroused Muslim
    opposition and led to the revolt of al-Mahdi, who
    captured Khartoum in 1885 and established a Muslim
    theocracy in the Sudan that lasted until 1898,
    when Mahdist forces were defeated by the British.
    The British ruled the country, generally in partnership
    with Egypt, until The Sudan achieved independence
    in 1956. Since then the country has fluctuated
    between ineffective parliamentary government
    and unstable military rule. The non-Muslim population
    of the south began rebellion against the Muslim-
    controlled government of the north in the early
    1980s, leading to famines and the displacement of
    millions of people. Meanwhile, fighting broke out in
    2003 between non-Arab Muslims in the Darfur region
    of western Sudan and government-backed Arab
    militias known as Janjaweed; tens of thousands of
    people were killed and hundreds of thousands more
    were displaced.
    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
    Area:
    total: 2,505,813 sq km
    Climate:
    tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
    Natural resources:
    petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
    Population:
    41,087,825 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Ethnic groups:
    black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

    Religions:
    Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs 25%

    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages
    Capital:
    name: Khartoum
    Administrative divisions:
    25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahda (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Central Equatoria), Gharb al Istiwa'iyya (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr el Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqoley (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Shimal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr el Ghazal), Shimal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyya (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 January (1956


  17. #17
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Syria

    SYRIA



    Background
    Syria has been inhabited for several thousand years.
    From the 3rd millennium BC it was under the control
    variously of Sumerians, Akkadians, Amorites, Egyptians,
    Hittites, Assyrians, and Babylonians. In the 6th
    century BC it became part of the Persian Achaemenian
    dynasty, which fell to Alexander the Great in 330
    BC. Seleucid rulers governed it from 301 BC to c. 164
    BC; Parthians and Nabataean Arabs then divided the
    region. It flourished as a Roman province (64 BC–AD
    300) and as part of the Byzantine Empire
    (300–634) until Muslims invaded and established
    control. It came under the Ottoman Empire in 1516,
    which held it, except for brief rules by Egypt, until
    the British invaded in World War I. After the war it
    became a French mandate; it achieved independence
    in 1945. It united with Egypt in the United
    Arab Republic (1958–61). During the Six-Day War
    (1967), it lost the Golan Heights to Israel. Syrian
    troops frequently clashed with Israeli troops in
    Lebanon during the 1980s and ’90s

    Location:
    Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Lebanon and Turkey
    Area:
    total: 185,180 sq km
    Climate:
    Hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus and the interior

    Natural resources:
    petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower
    Population:
    21,762,978
    country comparison to the world: 52

    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
    Religions:
    Sunni Muslim 74%, other Muslim (includes Alawite, Druze) 16%, Christian (various denominations) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)

    Languages:
    Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
    Government type:
    Republic
    Capital:
    name: Damascus
    Administrative divisions:
    14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah (Latakia), Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq (Damascus),, Halab(Aleppo), Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq Tartus
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 17 April (1946)


  18. #18
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    Tunisia

    TUNISIA




    Background
    From the 12th century BC the Phoenicians had a series
    of trading posts on the northern African coast. By
    the 6th century BC the Carthaginian kingdom encompassed
    most of present-day Tunisia. The Romans
    ruled from 146 BC until the Muslim Arab conquest in
    the mid-7th century AD. The area was fought over,
    won, and lost by many, including the Abbasids, the Almohads,
    the Spanish, and the Ottoman Turks, who finally
    conquered it in 1574 and held it until the late
    19th century. For a time it maintained autonomy as
    the French, the British, and the Italians contended for
    the region. In 1881 Tunisia became a French protectorate.
    In World War II, US and British forces captured
    it (1943) to end a brief German occupation. In 1956
    France granted it full independence; Habib Bourguiba
    assumed power and remained in office until
    1987.
    Location:
    Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
    Area:
    total: 163,610 sq km

    Climate:
    temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

    Population:
    10,486,339 (July 2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Ethnic groups:
    Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%
    Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%
    Languages:
    Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce)



  19. #19
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 17666

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزيرة الفراتية

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : بين لغتين

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 11

    التقويم : 27

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل29/6/2008

    آخر نشاط:06-09-2016
    الساعة:12:14 AM

    المشاركات
    4,359
    العمر
    34
    تدوينات المدونة
    3

    to be continued


  20. #20
    ركب الفصحاء

    معلومات شخصية

    رقم العضوية : 25648

    الجنس : ذكر

    البلد
    الجزائر

    معلومات علمية

    المؤهل العلمي : جامعي

    التخصص : علوم سياسية

    معلومات أخرى

    نقاط التميز : 6

    التقويم : 18

    الوسام: ★
    تاريخ التسجيل5/8/2009

    آخر نشاط:25-07-2016
    الساعة:11:12 PM

    المشاركات
    787

    Peace be upon you .السلام عليكم .
    Great job .
    May ALLAH reward you my brother .
    أثابك الله أخي .
    قد نستخدم هذه البداية في غرفة هتاف كي نتعلم القراءة . ونفيد فائدتين تعلم القراءة وجمع معلومات حول الدول العربية .
    فزرنا في هتاف كي تصحح لنا قراءاتنا .
    من يدري لعل الأمر يتسع و يصبح هناك ليلة خاصة بغير الناطقين باللغة العربية أيضا كما في برامج المحادثة الأخرى .

    التعديل الأخير من قِبَل أبومحمدع ; 02-11-2010 في 03:52 PM
    [IMG][/IMG]

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